PENENTUAN TINGKAT KEKERASAN BATUAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SEISMIK REFRAKSI

Boko Nurdiyanto, Eddy Hartanto, Drajat Ngadmanto, Bambang Sunardi, Pupung Susilanto

Abstract


Telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan metode seismik refraksi di daerah Sumbawa yang bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat kekerasan batuan. Pengambilan data lapangan dalam bentuk lintasan dan dibagi tiga bagian, yaitu menggunakan end-off spread di kedua ujung dan mid-spread. Tahapan pengolahan data diawali dengan melengkapi informasi posisi dari masing-masing geophone dan sumber seismiknya dengan mengedit geometri, sehingga dapat dikenali oleh komputer sebagai satu kesatuan data base. Untuk menghilangkan noise yang menenggelamkan sinyal firstbreak, dilakukan proses BPFB (Band Pass Filter Butterworth) sebesar 10-100 Hz. Proses inversi yang digunakan adalah refraction tomography, dengan pendekatan non linier least square inversion dan perhitungan pemodelan maju untuk menghitung nilai Vp menggunakan forward refraction raytracing. Penentuan densitas batuan menggunakan rumus empiris Gardner's relationship. Hasil interpretasi data menunjukkan empat lapisan batuan dengan kecepatan rambat gelombang P adalah 200-1800 m/sec dan densitasnya 1.17-2.05 gr/cc. Pengelompokan lapisan berdasarkan kecepatan rambat gelombang P adalah lapisan pertama (200-700 m/sec), lapisan kedua (700-1100 m/sec), lapisan ketiga (1100-1700 m/sec) dan lapisan keempat (>1700 m/sec). Litologi batuan bawah permukaan terdiri dari soil (1.17-1.59 g/cc), granodiorit lapuk kuat (1.59-1.78 gr/cc), granodiorit lapuk lemah (1.78-1.99 gr/cc) dan granodiorit segar (>1.99 gr/cc). Batuan keras terdapat dari permukaan hingga kedalaman 30 meter.

 

Seismic refraction research have been done in Sumbawa to determine the level of rocks density. Field data acquisition in lines and are divided into three parts that are end-off spreads at both ends and mid-spreads. The first step of the processing was to identified positions of each geophone and its shot by editing the geometry, so it can be recognized by computer as a single unified database. Bandpass Filter Butterworth process at 10-100 Hz has been done to eliminate noise that drowned the firstbreak signal. Inversion process using the refraction tomography with non-linear least squares inversion approach and the forward modeling for calculate Vp value using forward refraction raytracing. While the rock density determination used empirical formula from Gardner's relationship. Results of the  interpretation shows four layers of rock with the P-wave propagation velocity are 200-1800 m/sec and density are 1.17-2.05 g/cc. Grouping layers based on the P-wave propagation velocity are the first layer (200-700 m/sec), second layer (700-1100 m/sec), third layer (1100-1700 m/sec) and fourth layer (>1700 m/sec). Sub-surface lithology consists of soil (1.17-1.59 g/cc), strong weathered layer of granodiorite (1.59-1.78 g/cc), weak weathered layer of granodiorite (1.78-1.99 g/cc) and fresh granodiorite (>1.99 g/cc). Hard rock layer found from surface to 30 meters depth.


Keywords


Sumbawa;density;seismic refraction



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31172/jmg.v12i3.103

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