KARAKTERISTIK SPASIAL DAN TEMPORAL HOTSPOT DI PULAU SUMATERA

Mulyono R. Prabowo, Yonny Koesmaryono, Akhmad Faqih, Ardhasena Sopaheluwakan

Abstract


Kebakaran hutan di Indonesia telah menjadi masalah global yang terjadi setiap tahun, terutama di Pulau Sumatra. Identifikasi kebakaran hutan dan lahan dalam penelitian ini didasarkan pada jumlah dan distribusi hotspot, berdasarkan data citra satelit dari Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) pada 2009-2018. Investigasi pada kondisi meteorologi juga didasarkan pada faktor-faktor global dari data Oceanic Nino Index (ONI), Dipole Mode Index (DMI) dan berdasarkan pada indeks kekeringan dari data Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Metode yang digunakan adalah metode analisis spasial dan temporal. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik pola distribusi hotspot di Pulau Sumatra, baik secara spasial dan temporal. Ada perbedaan karakteristik spasial dan temporal dari distribusi hotspot di pulau Sumatra, yang didasarkan pada karakteristik topografi, fase ENSO, serta periode musim hujan dan kemarau. Hujan orografis yang terjadi akibat topografi gunung di Aceh dan pantai barat Sumatra mengakibatkan berkurangnya titik api di daerah tersebut. Sementara itu, El Nino meningkatkan jumlah hotspot, sedangkan La Nina mengurangi jumlah hotspot. Dibandingkan dengan IOD, ENSO lebih berpengaruh pada terjadinya peristiwa hotspot di pulau Sumatra. Perbedaan periode musim kemarau di Sumatera utara, tengah, dan selatan juga memberikan perbedaan waktu terjadinya hotspot maksimum di Sumatera. Pola distribusi hotspot di Sumatera utara dan tengah memuncak pada bulan Februari dan Juni, sedangkan di selatan pada bulan September. Konsentrasi titik api yang tinggi (> 50 kejadian perbulan) pada umumnya terjadi di lahan gambut, yang umumnya ditemukan di Sumatra timur (Sumatera Utara, Riau, dan provinsi Sumatra Selatan).

 

Forest fires in Indonesia have become a global problem that occurs every year, especially on the island of Sumatra. The identification of forest and land fires in this study is based on the number and distribution of hotspots, based on satellite image data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in 2009-2018. Investigations on meteorological conditions are also based on global factors from Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) data, Dipole Mode Index (DMI) and based on the drought index from the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) data. The method used is a spatial and temporal analysis method. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of hotspot distribution patterns on the island of Sumatra, both spatially and temporally. There are differences in the spatial and temporal characteristics of the hotspot distribution on the island of Sumatra, which is based on the characteristics of the topography, ENSO phase, as well as the wet and dry season periods. Orographic rain that occurred due to mountain topography in Aceh and the west coast of Sumatra resulted in reduced hotspots in the area. Meanwhile, El Nino increased the number of hotspots, while La Nina reduced the number of hotspots. Compared to IOD, ENSO is more influential on the occurrence of hotspot events on the island of Sumatra. The difference in the dry season period in northern, central and southern Sumatra also gives a difference in the time of the occurrence of maximum hotspots in Sumatra. The pattern of hotspot distribution in northern and central Sumatra peaked in February and June, while in the south in September. High hotspots (> 50 monthly events) with high concentrations occur on peatlands, which are commonly found in eastern Sumatra (province of North Sumatra, Riau, and South Sumatra).


Keywords


Hotspot, Sumatera, SPI, spasial, temporal

References


Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), 2019. Statistika Kelapa Sawit Indonesia 2018 - Indonesian Oil Palm Statistics 2018. Badan Pusat Statistik (ISSN: 1978-9947).

Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI), 2019. Hutan Lindung dan Konservasi dalam Rongrongan Sawit. Forest Watch Indonesia .

Saharjo B.H., 1999. Study on forest fire prevention for fast-growing tree species Acacia mangium plantation in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Kyoto University (Disertasi).

Glover D., dan Jessup T., 2006. Indonesia’s Fires and Haze - The Cost of Catastrophe. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies Singapore.

Hamzah A.S., Darmawan, Sumawinata B., dkk., 2019. Spatial analysis of hotspot data for tracing the source of annual peat fires in South Sumatera, Indonesia. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 393

Fatkhuroyan, Trinahwati dan Panjaitan A., 2015. Forest fires detection in Indonesia using satellite Himawari-8 (case study: Sumatera and Kalimantan on august-october 2015). IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci.,

Running, S.W., Mu Q., Zhao M. dan Moreno A., 2017. User’s Guide MODIS Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration (ET) Product (NASA MOD16A2/A3) NASA Earth Observing System MODIS Land Algorithm Ver 1.5. .

Rojas O., Li Y., dan Cumani R., 2014. Understanding the drought impact of El Niño on the global agricultural areas: An assessment using FAO’s Agricultural Stress Index (ASI). Environment and natural Resources Manage Series - Environment Climate Change (Monitoring and Assessment), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States, Vol. 23 (ISSN 2071-0992).

Saji N.H., Goswami B.N, Vinayachandran P.N., Yamagata T., 2012. A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401, 360-401.

World Meteorologycal Organization (WMO)., 2012. Standardized Precipitation Index User Guide - WMO-No. 1090. .

Persson A., Grazzini F., 2014. User Guide to ECMWF Forecast Products. Meteorological Bulletin M3.2 - Ver. 4.0.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2018. What is El Niño & La Niña?. < ://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/enso_advisory/index.shtml>).

Saji N. H., Yamagata T., 2002. Structure of SST and Surface Wind Variability during Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Events. COADS Observations. Journal of Climate, 16,2735 - 2751.

Yulianti N., Hayasaka H., dan Sepriando A., 2013. Recent Trends of Fire Occurrence in Sumatra (Analysis Using MODIS Hotspot Data): A Comparison with Fire Occurrence in Kalimantan. Open Journal of Foresty, 3-4, 129-137.

Prayoga M.B.R., Yannato A., dan Kusumo D.A., 2017. Analisis Korelasi Kerapatan Titik Api dengan Curah Hujan di Pulau Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca, 18-1, 17-24.

Parwati, Suwarsono dan Suprapto T.,2010. Analisis Peran ENSO Terhadap Distribusi Hotspot dan Curah Hujan di Pulau Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains Atm., 391:406.

Pan, X., Chin, M., Ichoku, C. M., Field, R. D., 2018. Connecting Indonesian fifires and drought with the type of El Niño and phase of the Indian Ocean dipole during 1979–2016. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123. (https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028402).

Harrison M.E., Page S.E., Limin S.H., 2009. The global impact of Indonesian forest fires. Biologist, 56-3, 156-163.

Prasetyo B., Irawandi H., dan Pusparini N., 2018. Karakteristik Curah Hujan Berrdasarkan Ragam Topografi di Sumatera Utara. Jurnal Saind & Teknologi Modivikasi Cuaca, 19-1, 11-20.

Rauniyar S.P., dan Walsh K.J.E., 2012. Influence of ENSO on the Diurnal Cycle of Rainfall over the Maritime Continent and Australia. Journal of Climate, 26, 1304 - 1321.

Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup (KLH)., 2012. Strategi Nasional Pengolahan Lahan Gambut Berkelanjutan di Indonesia. Deputi Bidang Pengendalian Kerusakan Lingkungan dan Perubahan Iklim.

Putra R., Sutriyono E., Kadir S., Iskandar I., dan Lestari D.O.,2019. Dynamical Link of Peat Fires in South Sumatra and the Climate Modes in the Indo-Pacific Region. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 51-1, 18 - 22.

Hutabarat S., 2017. Tantangan berkelanjutan Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Rakyat di Kabupaten Pelalawan, Riau dalam Perubahan Perdagangan Global. Masyarakat Indonesia, 43-1, 47-64.

Nawir A.A., Murniati, dan Rumboko L., 2008. Rehabilitasi Hutan di Indonesia. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) .




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31172/jmg.v21i1.674

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


PUBLISHED BY:

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan

Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG)

» http://puslitbang.bmkg.go.id/jmg


Jurnal Meteorologi dan Geofisika

e-ISSN : 2527-5372

p-ISSN : 1411-3082

 

Address : 

Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat 10720

» Phone : (+6221) 4246321 ext 1900

» Fax :(+6221) 65866238

Email Coordinatorthomas.hardy@bmkg.go.id


Plagiarism Tools

     

  Creative Commons License

Jurnal Meteorologi dan Geofisika is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

INDEXING

 

JMG Indexed by: